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Learning the Basics of Motor Control

2023-08-15
Latest company news about Learning the Basics of Motor Control

Electric motors are widely used in several electronic applications, to the point that we can say they are everywhere. In our homes we have multiple examples, such as fans, hair dryers, fan heaters, kitchen appliances and more. If we then consider a car, we can soon discover that there are different types of electric motors inside a vehicle: heating system, radiator cooling fans, electric windows, electric mirrors, seat control and much more.

This article, based on the eBook from the “For dummies” series published by Qorvo [1], will introduce the fundamental concepts that every designer, maker, or student must master to face a motor control application.

Brushed vs brushless motors
There are different types of motors on the market, which the designer must select based on the technical and economic requirements of the specific application. The main categories of motors are the following: brushed, brushless (in turn divided into BLDC and PMSM), induction, and stepper.

Figure 1 shows the four types of electric motors mentioned above, with a summary of the main advantages and disadvantages that each of them provides.

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Figure 1: The four main types of electric motor (Source: [1])
Figure 1: The four main types of electric motor (Source: [1])
For a variety of applications, BLDC and PMSM motors, two types of brushless motors that are closely related, have grown in popularity. These motors do not require brushes or a commutator, making them more effective than brushed motors and significantly extending motor life.

The brush/commutator interface in a brushed motor creates commutation, which is the process of switching current flow in the phases to produce a rotating magnetic field, which causes motion. Friction and arcing are both brought on by this interaction, both of which are undesirable.

BLDC motors and PMSMs use an electronically generated rotating magnetic field to do away with the brushes and commutator. The voltages and currents provided to the phases are modulated using external circuits specifically designed to accomplish this task.

Even though more complex, BLDC motors and PMSMs offer significant advantages over conventional brushed motors. Their electronic commutation techniques are more dependable, smaller, lighter, and quieter than brushed motors operating at the same speed, increasing energy efficiency by 20% to 30%.

While in in brushed motors the windings are located on the rotor (which rotates), in brushless motors they are located on the stator (which is stationary). Brushes are not necessary because of how the permanent magnets and windings are arranged within the electric motor. An electronic controller is required to control the current going to the stator coils of BLDC motors or PMSMs.

Compared to AC Induction motors, BLDC and PMSM motors allow precise speed control, are more suitable for variable-speed applications, and have superior speed versus torque characteristics.

products
NEWS DETAILS
Learning the Basics of Motor Control
2023-08-15
Latest company news about Learning the Basics of Motor Control

Electric motors are widely used in several electronic applications, to the point that we can say they are everywhere. In our homes we have multiple examples, such as fans, hair dryers, fan heaters, kitchen appliances and more. If we then consider a car, we can soon discover that there are different types of electric motors inside a vehicle: heating system, radiator cooling fans, electric windows, electric mirrors, seat control and much more.

This article, based on the eBook from the “For dummies” series published by Qorvo [1], will introduce the fundamental concepts that every designer, maker, or student must master to face a motor control application.

Brushed vs brushless motors
There are different types of motors on the market, which the designer must select based on the technical and economic requirements of the specific application. The main categories of motors are the following: brushed, brushless (in turn divided into BLDC and PMSM), induction, and stepper.

Figure 1 shows the four types of electric motors mentioned above, with a summary of the main advantages and disadvantages that each of them provides.

PARTNER CONTENT
3 Real-Life Electronics-Manufacturing Issues Resolved with MRP Software
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08.10.2023
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08.10.2023
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08.09.2023
Figure 1: The four main types of electric motor (Source: [1])
Figure 1: The four main types of electric motor (Source: [1])
For a variety of applications, BLDC and PMSM motors, two types of brushless motors that are closely related, have grown in popularity. These motors do not require brushes or a commutator, making them more effective than brushed motors and significantly extending motor life.

The brush/commutator interface in a brushed motor creates commutation, which is the process of switching current flow in the phases to produce a rotating magnetic field, which causes motion. Friction and arcing are both brought on by this interaction, both of which are undesirable.

BLDC motors and PMSMs use an electronically generated rotating magnetic field to do away with the brushes and commutator. The voltages and currents provided to the phases are modulated using external circuits specifically designed to accomplish this task.

Even though more complex, BLDC motors and PMSMs offer significant advantages over conventional brushed motors. Their electronic commutation techniques are more dependable, smaller, lighter, and quieter than brushed motors operating at the same speed, increasing energy efficiency by 20% to 30%.

While in in brushed motors the windings are located on the rotor (which rotates), in brushless motors they are located on the stator (which is stationary). Brushes are not necessary because of how the permanent magnets and windings are arranged within the electric motor. An electronic controller is required to control the current going to the stator coils of BLDC motors or PMSMs.

Compared to AC Induction motors, BLDC and PMSM motors allow precise speed control, are more suitable for variable-speed applications, and have superior speed versus torque characteristics.

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